Local Network Storage

   Vulnerable small

Materials routinely copied or backed up to locally managed data storage facilities and able to be restored under institutional service arrangements.

Digital Species: Integrated Storage

Trend in 2022:

No change No Change

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Trend in 2023:

No change No Change

Previously: Vulnerable

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended as required, with periodic review every five years.

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve | Inevitability 

Loss of material in this group could be entirely avoidable if provided the means to deploy proven tools and techniques.


Institutional or departmental network storage and institutional data centers based on technologies such as (NAS) Network Attached Storage, (RAID) Redundant Array of Independent Disks, (SAN) Storage Area Networks, JBOD (Just a bunch of disks), SPAN and related.

‘Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Encryption; lack of routine maintenance; lack of storage replication; over-dependence on a single supplier, technology or technician; insufficient documentation; single point of failure; political or commercial interference; failure of dependencies (e.g., power supply, controller software); overly aggressive compression; poor information security; lack of integrity-checking; lack of strategic investment; lack of warranty; unenforceable warranty, encryption.

‘Lower Risk’ in the Presence of Good Practice

Backup to different technology; backup to diverse locations; documentation of assets; integrity checking; preservation planning; refreshment planning; export functionality; resilient to hacking; selection and appraisal criteria; version control; resilient funding; technology watch; enforceable warranty; disaster planning and documentation.

2023 Review

This entry was added in 2019 to ensure that the range of media storage is properly assessed and presented.

The 2023 Council agreed with the current Vulnerable classification with overall risks remaining on the same basis as before (no change to the trend), while also noting a slight decrease in the effort needed to preserve and the imminence of action required when compared to the 2021 Jury review

Additional Comments

There has been a renewed interest in tape as offline storage is the only sure protection against advanced ransomware.

See also:

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