DPC

Consumer social media free at the point of use

   Endangered large

Social media services offered free at the point of use with a subscription model based on reselling user behavior and/or advertising.

Group: Social Media

Trend: No change

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2017

Last update: 2018

Previous category: Endangered

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on people and sectors around the world

Effort to Preserve

It would require a major effort to address losses in this group, possibly requiring the development of new preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

Flickr, Vimeo, YouTube, Instagram, Periscope, DropBox, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Yahoo Groups

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Lack of preservation capacity in provider; Lack of preservation commitment or incentive from provider; Lack of storage replication; proprietary products or formats; poor data protection; inaccessibility to web archiving; political or commercial interference; Lack of offline equivalent; super-abundance; poorly managed IPR; Lossy compression in upload scripts.

Vulnerable in the Presence of Good Practice

Offline backup and documentation of media assets; Migration plan; Early warning from vendors; Roadmap from vendors; Accessible to web harvest; Suitable export functionality; Licencing enables preservation; Preservation commitment from vendor; Preservation capability in vendor;

Resilient to hacking; Selection criteria;

2019 Review

The judges have introduced this entry as a subset of a previous entry, emphasizing the different threats faced by online services that are ‘paid-for’ versus ‘free-at-the-point-of-use’. Both depend on the business model of the vendor and the terms which they impose. For this group of digital materials the business model and sustainability can only be guessed and contracts tend to be asymmetrical in favour of the supplier. Moreover, because these services have a low barrier to entry they may be favoured by agencies or individuals least able to respond to closure or loss.

Additional Jury Comments

Social media capture via web harvesting has become increasingly difficult. The platforms continue to put up barriers to automated capture that prevent preservation of even so-called public content. For example, campaign websites or other election-related content that is only published in Facebook or on Twitter, because these services are "Free". This content is of particular concern as it appears on no other website. Web archivists are constantly shifting strategies and approaches and trying out new (but limited) tools to best capture this content. If we cannot successfully preserve these platforms, we are missing out on documenting organizations, campaigns and elections around the globe. Much of this data exists as data sets based on aggregated use rather than individual files.

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Contractual Documents and Related Records

   Endangered large

Documents, correspondence and other records created in the course of contractual dealings between individuals and agencies, especially where the subjects are of long duration and may be subject to legal scrutiny at undefined points in the distant future.

Group: Digital Legal Records

Trend: No change

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2017

Last update: 2018

Previous category: Endangered

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to preserve materials in this group, with the deployment of proven tools or techniques.

Examples

Contracts, receipts, correspondence, license agreements, building consent, warranties, and any other document or record that represents a legally binding transaction or permission. Such records may be useful in the avoidance or resolution of disputes whether in court or prior to proceedings. Includes Online Terms and Conditions for e-commerce or end-user agreements for services.

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Loss of context; loss of authenticity or integrity; external dependencies; poor storage; lack of understanding; churn of staff; poorly framed or over-zealous disposal; ill-informed records management; misplaced fears with respect to data protection, encryption.

Vulnerable in the Presence of Good Practice

Well managed data infrastructure; preservation enabled at the point of creation; carefully managed authenticity; use of persistent identifiers; finding aids; well managed records management processes; application of records management standards

2019 Review

This entry is a subset of an entry made in 2017 for ‘Digital Legal Records and Evidence’ which the Jury has decided to split into four more discrete entries this year. It has significant overlap with a separate entry about Pension Mortgage and Insurance Records, except that those are created explicitly with the expectation that they are tied to long-lifecycle products and are held by long lived agencies who provide those products. This entry notes that many digital records have value over the long term which may not be immediately obvious at the point of creation.

Additional Jury Comments

Legal agreements should be dealt with through records management standards and processes with agencies who have experience of handling this.

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Corporate Records of Long Duration on Network Drives, Intranets and EDRMS

   Endangered large

Records on internal corporate network drives, intranets or document management services where access is limited to a distinct group of users, and in which the lifecycle of the record or the business processes they support is greater than the technology on which they are created or retained.

Group: Sensitive Data

Trend: No Change

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2017

Last update: 2018

Previous category: Endangered

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a major effort to preserve materials in this group, with the development of new preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

Born digital records of small and medium sized enterprises; fasting-changing internal manuals, advice or policies shared on intranets or EDRMS; records of long-lived products and services; Historic guidelines and manuals which evidence 'best practice'; Documentation supporting long-lived contractual relations; Online terms and conditions; Corporate Slack channels; Google Drives; EDRMS; Email.

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Lack of systematic preservation function; lack of preservation path or plan for data; dependence on proprietary products or formats; poor management of data protection; political or commercial interference; lack of offline equivalent; over-abundance through poor disposal or version control; lack of capacity; lack of commitment; loss or lack of documentation; sector specific software or data types; encryption

‘Vulnerable’ in the Presence of Good Practice

Preservation infrastructure and pathways; replication; appraisal and selection including de-duplication;

2019 Review

This entry draws attention to the pressing need for digital preservation in business, especially in small to medium enterprises.

Additional Jury Comments

Corporate records should form part of organisational records management schemes and so responsibilities should be clear, however this may be much more challenging for smaller organisations without dedicated roles, or with complex data types.

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Current Portable Magnetic Media

   Endangered large

Materials saved to magnetic tape, portable hard disks or other magnetic media in the last five years where the reader devices are still supported and can be integrated easily into hardware infrastructure.

Group: Portable Media

Trend: new entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update: 2019

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to address losses in this group, requiring the application of proven preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

LTO8 tapes; portable hard disks

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Poor storage conditions; encryption; digital rights management; lack of replication; lack of documentation; lack of periodic testing; lack of refreshment pathway; lack of access to readers; out of manufacturers’ warranty or no warranty; storage within paper files.

Vulnerable in the Presence of Good Practice

Regular review and testing; replication; refreshment plan; comprehensive documentation; high quality storage; regular maintenance of readers; multiple readers available.

2019 Review

The judges introduced this entry to ensure that the range of media storage is properly assessed and presented. Magnetic media is typically more fragile than optical media because it is susceptible to ‘bitrot’ and magnetic damage in ways that optical media are not.

Additional Jury Comments

This entry is highly dependent on who is looking after the portable media but made more difficult over time. The lack of granularity in the definition means that only general advice can be offered such as to refresh media. In time it may yet be more useful to split all storage media (maybe 100 items long) with an indication of how long these can be expected to last. In many cases obsolete media can be recovered by specialist companies but the cost of employing them can become an aggravating condition.

It’s important to emphasize that the short lifetime of many storage devices is not a problem to be solved with new long-lasting storage technologies (and indeed, many inventions have come and gone). Cheap, commodity storage has been purposely designed to deliver value at a low price for a short time, and therefore management and preservation processes for monitoring and refreshment need to take these characteristics into account.

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Current Portable Optical Media

   Endangered large

Materials saved to DVDs, CDs or other optical media in the last five years where the reader devices are still supported and can be integrated easily into hardware infrastructure

Group: Portable Media

Trend: New Entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update: 2019

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to address losses in this group, requiring the application of proven preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

CDs, DVDs produced in the last five years

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Poor storage conditions; encryption; digital rights management; lack of replication; lack of documentation; lack of periodic testing; lack of refreshment pathway; lack of access to readers; out of manufacturers’ warranty or no warranty; storage in paper files.

Vulnerable in the Presence of Good Practice

Regular review and testing; replication; refreshment plan; comprehensive documentation; high quality storage; regular maintenance of readers; multiple readers available;

2019 Review

The judges have introduced this entry to ensure that the range of media storage is properly assessed and presented.

Additional Jury Comments

This entry is highly dependent on who is looking after the portable media but made more difficult over time. The lack of granularity in the definition means that only general advice can be offered such as to refresh media. In time it may yet be more useful to split all storage media (maybe 100 items long) with an indication of how long these can be expected to last. In many cases obsolete media can be recovered by specialist companies but the cost of employing them can become an aggravating condition.

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Current Portable Solid-State Media

   Endangered large

Materials saved to flash drives or other solid-state media in the last five years where the reader devices are still supported and can be integrated easily into hardware infrastructure

Group: Portable Media

Trend: New Entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update: 2019

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to address losses in this group, requiring the application of proven preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

USB memory sticks; flash cards in cameras; solid state portable hard disks

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Poor storage conditions; encryption; digital rights management; lack of replication; lack of documentation; lack of periodic testing; lack of refreshment pathway; lack of access to readers; out of manufacturers’ warranty or no warranty; storage in paper files.

Vulnerable in the Presence of Good Practice

Regular review and testing; replication; refreshment plan; comprehensive documentation; high quality storage; regular maintenance of readers; multiple readers available;

2019 Review

The judges have introduced this entry to ensure that the range of media storage is properly assessed and presented.

Additional Jury Comments

This entry is highly dependent on who is looking after the portable media but made more difficult over time. The lack of granularity in the definition means that only general advice can be offered such as to refresh media. In time it may yet be more useful to split all storage media (maybe 100 items long) with an indication of how long these can be expected to last. In many cases obsolete media can be recovered by specialist companies but the cost of employing them can become an aggravating condition.

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Digital materials in museums and galleries

   Endangered large

All manner of digital materials held in museums to support the access, interpretation and management of physical collections, including material generated by interaction with the public and in the course of research. It excludes those small amounts of digital material formally accessioned into museum collections.

Group: Museum Data

Trend: New Entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update:2019

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to address losses in this group, requiring the application of proven preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

Digital photography, video, sound, oral histories, collections management systems, conservation records, exhibition records, archives, operational or business records, scientific research outputs, correspondence, social media, 3d digitization.

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Lack of repository infrastructure; external dependencies; dependency on cloud provider; poor storage; churn of staff; significant volumes or diversity of data; poorly developed digitization specifications; ill-informed records management policy; conflation of access with preservation; poorly developed migration or normalization; longstanding protocols or procedures that apply unsuitable paper processes to digital materials; inability to assume responsibility; encryption

‘Vulnerable’ in the Presence of Good Practice

Repository and preservation infrastructure; strategic leadership; well-developed digitization and migration pathways; participation in the global digital preservation community;

2019 Review

This new entry brings together submissions from the open nomination process. The Jury takes the view that museums make creative use of digital technology but have weak incentives to preserve the outputs when compared to libraries or archives.  Museums take responsibility for the care of physical collections in the long term which brings a derived requirement to preserve digital materials relating to those collections. The museum sector is lacking preservation capability.

Additional Jury Comments

This entry is very broadly defined, and whilst it is useful to draw attention to the challenges, it might usefully be disaggregated in the future. For example, museums have significant incentives to maintain collection catalogues for audit purposes, and to share these with the public. Such databases are likely to face less severe preservation challenges than data generated about the collection through museum operations, conservation or research. Related data sets present different challenges too. For example, 3D digitisation is a particular challenge for museums as preservation standards are deficient and easily overlooked in the enthusiasm for fashionable or eye-catching trends which purport to extend access. Moreover, this sector is incredibly diverse and different needs are likely to exist in different kinds of museum or gallery.

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Digitally published sheet music

   Endangered large

Sheet music licensed and published in a variety of digital formats and subject to copyright restrictions and often protected by digital rights management technologies

Group: Sound and Vision

Trend: New Entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update: 2019

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within five years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on people and sectors around the world.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to address losses in this group, requiring the application of proven preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

All manner of published sheet music including choral works, orchestral works, scores.

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Encryption; uncertainty over intellectual property rights; uncertain business model of publisher; lack of legal deposit mandate.

‘Vulnerable’ in the Presence of Good Practice

Rights management conducive to preservation; held in a trusted repository; legal deposit copying enabled.

2019 Review

This is a new entry introduced by the Jury as a subset of ‘Digital Music Production and Sharing’ which was reported in 2017. The Jury has split this into components to draw attention to the different challenges faced by these different forms. This is recognisably the smallest of the group and has connections to PDF and PDF/A as well as E-Book formats which are commonly used to publish music.

Additional Jury Comments

 The commercial value of these materials should be a protection against their loss, and the history of the music industry indicates that sheet music continues to have value, so even if an individual organisation fails or its DRM servers go offline and some music becomes inaccessible it is not lost. However, the difficulties of archiving DRM-locked files remain real.

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Digital music and ephemera shared on social media

   Endangered large

Digital materials created by musicians and fans as a by-product of performance or recording, shared on websites and other social media platforms.

Group: Sound and Vision

Trend: New Entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update: 2019

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on people and sectors around the world.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a major effort to address losses in this group, possibly requiring the development of new preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

Fan sites; private or illicit recordings of concerts; informal music sharing between networks.

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Dependence on social media provider; lack of offline equivalent; infringing intellectual property right; unstable or small community of interest; encryption

Vulnerable in the Presence of Good Practice

Offline equivalent; intellectual property rights conducive to preservation; partnership with collecting institution; availability to web archiving.

2019 Review

This entry has been split out of the previous entry for ‘Digital Music Production and Sharing’ though it has overlaps with other entries including those relating to social media as well as those relating to community-generated content. It has been retained as a separate theme to emphasize the context in which music is shared and enjoyed – a context which could be lost if our attention were on products controlled by studios or artists. The recent case of the closure of ‘Yahoo Groups’ serves to underline the fragility of community content hosted by third parties.

Additional Jury Comments

The ephemera are increasingly stored on websites that themselves are fragile and are removed - as we see with MySpace's removal of MP3s, Flickr's decision to delete vast numbers of images held on free accounts and material lost as a result of Tumblr's policy changes on the definition of pornography. Nothing held on these services can be relied on in archival timeframes

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Digital Radio Recordings

   Endangered large

Master recordings of radio broadcasts generated live but often poorly stored thereafter. Eg: Offline recordings on single LTO (Linear Tape Open) Tapes

Group: Sound and Vision

Trend: No Change

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2017

Last update: 2018

Previous category: Endangered

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within twelve months

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on people and sectors around the world.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a major effort to address losses in this group, possibly requiring the development of new preservation tools or techniques.

Examples

Broadcast archives of UK commercial local radio;

‘Critically Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Lack of archival mandate; lack of capability of archive; lack of policy or capacity within broadcaster; small or unprofitable broadcaster; concern over intellectual property rights; overzealous rights management protection; device or software dependence; dependence on proprietary or obsolete formats; lack or loss of documentation; little use or inaccessibility; storage (typically tapes) older than warranty; lack of media refreshment plan; lack of error or integrity checking process; single copies

‘Vulnerable’ in the Presence of Good Practice

Archival responsibility accepted and acted upon; replication; refreshment of media; good documentation; active in digital preservation community; trusted repository; content re-used

2019 Review

This category was reported explicitly in concern over recordings on LTO tapes. These provide between 15 and 30 years’ storage which may be less depending on usage and storage conditions. LTO1 and LTO2 which were released in 2000 and 2003 respectively are now entering the final phases of viability. Reader compatibility may be more problematic than media resilience however. Drives supporting newer releases of the format are typically only compatible within two generations and experience with the recently released LTO8 suggest that it is only backwardly compatible to one generation.  Therefore one major national archive and library has decided to expedite migration away from LTO6 which is becoming obsolete more quickly than anticipated. Through time, the risks to collections that have not been refreshed or replicated from early LTO tapes expand. Thus, the overall trend is towards greater risk when collections are not migrated. Older formats, perhaps as recently as LTO6, extinction events should be anticipated within two to five years.

Additional Jury Comments

Broadcasters may keep their own programmes but they are not being comprehensively collected or archived by memory institutions.

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