Vulnerable small

Materials saved to storage devices with a variety of underlying magnetic or solid-state (flash) technologies that are hardwired into a computer still under warranty or supported: typically hard disks that are less than five years old.

Group: Storage

Trend: New Entry

Consensus Decision

Added to List: 2019

Last update: New Entry

Previous category: New Entry

Imminence of Action

Action is recommended within three years, detailed assessment within one year.

Significance of Loss

The loss of tools, data or services within this group would impact on many people and sectors.

Effort to Preserve

It would require a small effort to preserve materials in this group, requiring the application of proven tools and techniques.


Direct Attached Storage (DAS) such as Magnetic or solid-state drives integrated into individual laptop or workstations and into smaller scale storage facilities.

‘Endangered’ in the Presence of Aggravating Conditions

Encryption; poor handling; poor storage; lack of consistent replication; failure of external (dependencies eg suppliers, security); political or commercial interference; failure of internal dependencies (e.g. power supply, disk controller); overly aggressive compression; poor information security; lack of integrity-checking; lack of strategic investment; lack of warranty; unenforceable warranty; encryption.

Lower Risk in the Presence of Good Practice

Backup to different technology; backup to diverse locations; documentation of assets; integrity checking; preservation planning; refreshment planning; export functionality; resilient to hacking; selection and appraisal criteria; version control; resilient funding; technology watch; enforceable warranty; disaster planning.

2019 Review

The judges introduced this entry to ensure that the range of media storage is properly assessed and presented. 

Additional Jury Comments

See also:

Digital Preservation Coalition (2016) ‘Storage’ in Digital Preservation Handbook (Second Edition), online at

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