In this section
DPC/PADI What's new in digital preservation - Issue 13
March - June 2006
A joint service of the Digital Preservation Coalition and the PADI (Preserving Access to Digital Information) gateway
13 July 2006
This is an archived issue of What's New.
Also available as a print-friendly PDF (262KB).
Known problem links in online versions and PDFs are disabled (or updated when the issue is current) but it is not always possible to annotate the amendments in PDFs with a date or other information which may appear in the online version.
This is a summary of selected recent activity in the field of digital preservation compiled from the Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI) Gateway and the digital-preservation and padiforum-l mailing lists. Additional or related items of interest may also be included.
- News from organisations and initiatives
1.1 U.K. Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC)
1.2 Digital Curation Centre (UK)
1.3 JISC (UK)
1.4 Library of Congress (US)
1.5 Research Libraries Group (US)
1.6 European Commission
1.8 National Library and the National Archives of the Netherlands
1.10 Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)
1.12 Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (German National Library)
- Specific themes
2.1 Digital Preservation Research and Directions
2.2 Costs, value and business models
2.4 E-journal archives
2.5 Digital memory research
2.6 Personal archiving
2.7 Digital documents
2.9 Web archiving - national projects
2.10 Web archiving - tools
2.11 Digital images
2.12 Audio preservation
2.13 Audiovisual archiving
- Other publications
4.1 Recent events
4.2 Forthcoming events
The Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) has announced that it will periodically report on member projects. The reports are in the form of interviews, and to date there are three in the series. The DPC also announced two new updates to The Preservation Management of Digital Materials: a Handbook - an interactive and updated version of the "Decision Tree for Selection of Digital Materials for Long-term Retention", and a new section on "Costs and Business Modelling".
Jones, Maggie. (2006). SHERPA DP Project : [an Interview with Andrew Wilson]. (2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Jones, Maggie. (2006). UK Web Consortium : [an Interview with Philip Beresford]. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Semple, Najla. (2006). LIFE project : [an Interview with Rory Mcleod]. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Digital Preservation Coalition (2006). 'Decision Tree for Selection of Digital Materials for Long-term Retention' The Preservation Management of Digital Materials: A Handbook, Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Digital Preservation Coalition. (2006). 'Costs and Business Modelling'. The Preservation Management of Digital Materials: A Handbook. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dpconline.org/graphics/inststrat/costs.html
The Digital Curation Centre (DCC) has released several new documents on their Web site in the last few months. A series of briefing papers are designed to give a concise overview and high level introduction to relevant digital curation subjects. Two new instalments have been added to the Digital Curation Manual, one on Metadata (added 25 January 2006) and another on Archival Metadata (added 24 May 2006). These instalments aim to provide detailed and practical information aimed at digital curation practitioners. There is also a new case study on the JHOVE file identification and validation tool and a technology watch report on DSpace Digital Repository software.
Pennock, Maureen (2006). Curating E-mails. Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
McGarva, Guy (2006). Curating Geospatial Data. Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Semple, Najla (2006). Digital Repositories. Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Digital Curation Manual:
Day, Michael (2005). Instalment on â€œMetadataâ€. Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
van Ballegooie, Marlene and Duff, Wendy (2006). Instalment on 'Archival Metadata'. Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/curation-manual/chapters/archival-metadata
Donnelly, Martin (2006). JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment (JHOVE). Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/case-studies/jhove
Technology watch report:
Pennock, Maureen (2006). DSpace Digital Repository Software. Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The DCC has also announced it is conducting a survey to evaluate the level of current curation activity and the DCC's effectiveness in raising awareness regarding digital curation issues. The closing date is 28 July 2006.
Digital Curation Centre. (2006). Digital Curation Centre Public Survey. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
JISC has funded a Digital Repositories Roadmap document to look towards the UK academic repositories infrastructure in 2010. The authors suggest that by 2010 there will be a firmer basis for a national preservation strategy that makes clear who has responsibility for preserving different types of data and who has responsibility for providing open access to resources. A significant aim is to explore national and institutional preservation responsibilities and provide institutions with a preservation audit toolkit.
Heery, R. and Powell, A. (2006). Digital Repositories Roadmap: Looking Forward. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In May, the Library of Congress (LOC) launched the Web Capture Web site. The Web site includes information on capturing and preserving historically important Web sites such as that of the U.S. Congress and those about Hurricane Katrina and the Iraq War. The Web site has links to technical information, guidelines for the harvesting process, FAQs and the project partners. The Web Capture Program and its partners are developing a common set of Web capture tools in four areas: curator selection, verification and permissions; acquisition; collection storage and maintenance; and access.
Library of Congress. (2006). Web Capture. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.loc.gov/Web capture/
The Section 108 Study Group was created to recommend changes to United States copyright law that recognise the need for exceptions to the law for libraries and archives in the digital age. This Group has created a public comments page and a public roundtable page that links to documents related to developments in these areas. In April the Group released public roundtable transcripts and written comments. The transcripts cover several topics including a new exception to the law to permit the capture of websites and other online content, and proposals for a new exception to permit the creation of preservation only copies under certain circumstances. In May the Group also released the written public comments from the Federal Register request.
Library of Congress. Section 108 Study Group. (2006). Public Roundtables. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Library of Congress. Section 108 Study Group. (2006). Public comments. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The Library of Congress and the British Library have agreed to support a common archiving standard for electronic journals. To help ensure long-term access to electronic journals, the two institutions will support the migration of electronic content to the NLM DTD standard, where practicable. The libraries hope that their advocacy of migration to this standard will help ensure long-term access to electronic journal content.
Press release: Library of Congress, British Library to Support Common Archiving Standard for Electronic Journals. (April 19 2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.loc.gov/today/pr/2006/06-097.html
The Library of Congress, as part of its National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP), has continued to communicate with a variety of stakeholders, including forums for state bodies, currently funded project partners and the commercial sector.
During 2005, the Library of Congress convened three meetings with all the states to discuss the issues and current practice with the preservation of state and local government based digital information. The report, Preserving State Government Digital Information : Issues and Opportunities : Report of the Library of Congress Convening Workshops with the States, discusses the themes and issues emerging from the workshops, including roles and responsibilities, building partnerships, preservation priorities and organisational and technical infrastructure.
National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program. (2006). Preserving State Government Digital Information : Issues and Opportunities : Report of the Library of Congress Convening Workshops with the States. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
NDIIPP has also published a report from the Collaborative Collection Development partners meeting in January 2006. This third meeting of the NDIIPP project partners was designed to provide them with a forum to inform fellow participants on what they have learned so far and the common issues they face. Presentations also includes discussion of the NDIIPP's Archive Ingest and Handling Test (AIHT) and Portico.
National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program. (2006). What if NDIIPP knew what NDIIPP knows? Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/partners/project_mtg010906.html
A session entitled 'Preserving Creative America' held in early April focused on potential partnership projects between NDIIPP and commercial content producers. The Library plans to issue a request this year for expressions of interest from private industry for cooperative projects as a way to catalyze preservation work in the private sector.
Press release: Library Holds Strategy Session on "Preserving Creative America". (19 April 2006) Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The Research Libraries Group (RLG) has launched a new initiative, the Web Archiving Program. The objective of this project is to help RLG members create archives of Web-based information. The initiative will feature working groups and information on metadata, collection management, intellectual property, a tutorial on Web archiving, and information on Web archiving software.
Research Libraries Group. (2006). Web Archiving Program. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
RLG has also announced plans to merge with OCLC. The press release also has links to FAQs on the merger.
Press release: RLG to Combine with OCLC. (3 May 2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The European Commission has announced the formation of a group to advise the European Commission on how to build the European Library, including addressing organisational, legal and technical challenges. The inaugural meeting of the High Level Expert Group on Digital Libraries was on 27 March 2006. The 20 member group brings together the major stakeholders in the venture.
Press release: High Level Expert Group to Advise European Commission on How to Build the European Digital Library. (27 March 2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In April, the DigitalPreservationEurope Web site was launched. This EU project aims to collaborate, develop, promote and coordinate digital preservation initiatives in Europe, including standards, training and research activities. It will combine expertise across the academic, research, cultural, public administration and industry sectors. The partners in this initiative are:
- Vienna University of Technology
- State and University Library of Denmark
- Dutch National Archives
- Czech Republic National Library
- Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities (Italy)
- 'Digital Renaissance - New Technologies for Culture Heritage' Foundation
- Vilnius University Faculty of Communication
- FernUniversitÃ¤t in Hagen (Germany)
An associate partners forum has also been developed which is open to view via registration. DigitalPreservationEurope builds on and extends the mission of ERPANET.
DigitalPreservationEurope. (2006). DigitalPreservationEurope. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
DigitalPreservationEurope. (2006). Associate Forum. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The previous issue of the quarterly digest included two articles about modular emulation. Now the National Library and the National Archives of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek and Nationaal Archief) have announced a joint project to build a working prototype of a modular emulator. Together they have contracted Tessella Support Services plc to design and develop an open source modular emulator to demonstrate the potential benefits and costs of emulation as a tool for long-term digital preservation. The project will run from February 2006 to April 2007.
Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands:
Remco Verdegem, project manager,
Jeffrey van der Hoeven, Coordinator, Test Team and member of the Development Team,
nestor has commissioned and released a series of seven studies on digital preservation. Although originally published in German, summaries (some extensive) of the individual titles are available in English. The titles are -
Burghoff, Uwe M. (2004). Comparison of Existing Archival Systems. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Severiens, Thomas (2005). Developing a Profile for a National Long-term Preservation Policy. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Witthaut, Dirk (2005). Digitization and the Preservation of Digital Data in German Museums. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Goebel and Scheller (Bad Homburg v.d.H) (2006). Long-term Preservation and Law. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Fuelle, G. and Ott, T. (2006). Long-term Preservation of Digital Publications : Preserving Electronic Journals (e-Journals). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Hilf, E. and Severiens, T. (2006). Long-term Preservation of Raw Scientific Data : Study into the Status of Existing Research and Raw Scientific Data : Prequisites and Suitability for Preservation and Accessibility in Germany. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Coy, Wolfgang (2006). Perspectives of Long-term Preservation of Multimedia Objects. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The index page for all these reports (retrieved 13 July, 2006) can be found at:
Since its inception, the OAIS reference model has been widely adopted within the digital preservation community. Initially developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), the reference model was approved as an ISO standard by the International Organization for Standardization in 2003 (ISO 14721:2003). According to CCSDS and ISO procedures, the standard must be reviewed every five years, and a comment period to begin this process has been established. Comments and suggestions are invited, categorised under one of these headings:
- updates needed for clarification
- updates to add missing concepts or strengthen weak concepts
- identification of any outdated material.
Comments must be received by 30 October 2006.
A consortium of Harvard University, Portico, and Stanford University submitted a proposal to the Library of Congress under the National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program (NDIIPP) initiative for a project called JHOVE2: A Next-Generation Architecture for Format-Aware Digital Preservation Processing. JHOVE2 builds on JHOVE, an open source framework for the identification, validation and characterisation of various file formats. This proposed project will seek to retain existing JHOVE functionality and refactor the existing architecture, support enhancements, increase the range of supported formats, and develop modules for supporting key preservation processes. Input from the JHOVE user community will be sought as part of the design phase.
Harvard University, Portico, and Stanford University. (2006). JHOVE2: A Next-Generation Architecture for Format-Aware Digital Preservation Processing (2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In late June, as a result of new legislation, German legal deposit has expanded to encompass networked electronic publications. Coinciding with this change, Die Deutsche Bibliothek has also changed its name to Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. The domain name has also changed to http://www.d-nb.de.
Press release (in German): Deutsche Nationalbibliothek mit erweitertem Sammelauftrag. (29 June 2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In 2004-2005, The National Library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) conducted a survey for the IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS) on the use and development of standards in digital archiving within the international library world. The survey resulted in the report Networking for Digital Preservation: Current Practice in 15 National Libraries, which was released recently.
Verheul, Ingeborg. (2006) Networking for Digital Preservation : Current Practice in 15 National Libraries. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.ifla.org/VI/7/pub/IFLAPublication-No119.pdf
Jonas Palm has written an article that presents an analysis of costs for digitizing and long-term storage at the Riksarkivet (National Archives, RA) in Stockholm, Sweden, with an aim that the article 'may help other institutions in analysing their own costs and budgeting for long-term storage'.
Palm, J. (2006). The Digital Black Hole. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In recent months the espida Project (An Effective Strategic model for the Preservation and disposal of Institutional Assets) has published two papers and released a beta version of the espida Model for general use and evaluation. The espida project at the University of Glasgow aims to provide a method to value intangible assets in order to construct convincing business cases to ensure the preservation of information objects. The papers published espouse that value should be considered as a counterpoint for costs. Both papers provide a perspective on the content of the project and the logic their methods have followed. The beta version of the espida Model is now available for download from the project Web site. The model provides a process and set of tools contained within five documents, and can be used to assist creating business cases, assessing change decisions and evaluating proposals involving normally intangible benefits. The documents include cost and value templates which articulate both financial and non-financial benefits or impacts.
Currall, J., McKinney, P. and Johnson, C. (2006). 'Digital Preservation as an Albatross'. Presented at Archiving 2006, May 23-26 2006, Ottawa. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://hdl.handle.net/1905/535
Currall, J. and McKinney, P. (2006). 'Investing in Value: a Perspective on Digital Preservation' D-Lib Magazine, 12(4), April 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/april06/mckinney/04mckinney.html
Espida Project (2006). espida Model download. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.gla.ac.uk/espida/model_download.shtml
A paper written by Adrienne Muir examines the impact of intellectual property rights, licensing and publishing models on preservation of and access to digital information from the perspective of United Kingdom law. Initiatives such as legal deposit, exemptions to existing laws, raising awareness through organisations such as the Digital Preservation Coalition and new forms of licensing agreements such as the Creative Commons Licenses, are discussed as possible avenues, either singularly or in combination, for achieving solutions acceptable to both publishers and libraries.
Muir, Adrienne (2006). Preservation, Access and Intellectual Property Rights Challenges for Libraries in the Digital Environment. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.ippr.org.uk/ecomm/files/preservation_access_ip.pdf
Eileen Fenton, Executive Director of Portico, contributed an article to Ariadne that discusses the need for reliable archives of scholarly electronic journals and then gives the background and future plans for the not-for-profit Portico archive.
Fenton, Eileen (2006). 'Preserving Electronic Scholarly Journals : Portico' Ariadne, Issue 27, April 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Anne Kenney has written an article about a study to survey ten e-journal archiving initiatives. The purpose of the study is to discuss strategies and options for e-journal archiving. CLIR will publish a report on the findings in August 2006.
Kenney, Anne (2006). "Surveying the E Journal Preservation Landscape" CLIR Bulletin (23) March 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.clir.org/pubs/archives/ejournal.htm
Digital Memory Research is a high level cross-disciplinary approach to the social, scientific and material aspects of memory. A recent paper identifies ways that these disparate areas may converge and identifies gaps in knowledge. Of particular interest is the issue of digital memory and digital preservation. This approach is related to the M4L (Memories for Life) Grand Challenge. Background information on this initiative is provided in the paper Memories for Life : Managing Information Over a Human Lifetime and the Memories for Life Web site.
O'Hara, K. et al. (2006) "Memories for Life : a Review of the Science and Technology". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. (3), pp. 351-365. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Fitzgibbon, Andrew and Reiter, Ehud. (2003). Memories for Life : Managing Information Over a Human Lifetime. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Memories for Life. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.memoriesforlife.org/
Two interesting papers have been published that discuss how people approach personal archiving, including managing the obstacles and issues that can occur in the archiving process.
With the goal of designing a Personal Information Management (PIM) service, an article by Marshall, Bly and Brun-Cottan provides useful background information on how home computer users are creating, receiving and archiving their data. The study highlights the obstacles faced in PIM such as inconsistent and piecemeal approaches to the problem and lack of technical support. There is also the notion among home computer users that digital data is long lived, so minimal intervention is required.
Another paper by Catherine Marshall also looks at PIM and will become a chapter in a forthcoming monograph, Personal Information Management: Challenges and Opportunities. The author discusses the importance of the long term storage of personal digital information with regard to seven issues and then outlines some technological developments that may go some way to address these issues. The issues include predicting value, distributed storage, long term access and format obsolescence. The article presents several scenarios and a case study highlighting the long-term issues in PIM.
Marshall, C.C., Bly, S. and Brun-Cottan, F. (2006). Long Term Fate of our Digital Belongings : Toward a Service Model for Personal Archives. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/~marshall/archiving2006-marshall.pdf
Marshall, C.C. (2006). Maintaining Personal Information : Issues Associated with Long Term Storage Preservation and Access. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/~marshall/PIM%20Chapter-Marshall.pdf
A paper by Thomas and Martin discusses the key aims of the Paradigm (Personal ARchives Accessible in DIGital Media) project and outlines some of the project's initial findings. These findings relate to how archivists might select, acquire, process, store, preserve and provide access to the digital archives of individuals for the use of future researchers. The article fuses archival and digital curation theory with the practicalities of working in a testbed situation involving personal digital collections and papers of British politicians. It also analyses the implications of exponential growth in the creation of personal digital collections - from digital images, and music files to personal Web sites and blogs - and concludes with a discussion of what this may mean for the wider archival profession.
Thomas, S. and Martin, J. (2006). "Using the Papers of Contemporary British Politicians as a Testbed for the Preservation of Digital Personal Archives". Journal of the Society of Archivists, vol. 27, no. 1 April 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Currently, the archiving of Web sites is mainly in the sphere of national and international organisations. HANZO Web : a Social Web Archiving Service is an interesting site as it allows, via registration, personal Web archiving at nominated intervals of selected pages, links and Web sites. The site guarantees permanent access and content is stored in open Web archive standards-based formats.
HANZO Web : a Social Web Archiving Service. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.hanzoWeb .com/
The International Organization for Standardization approved the Open Document Format (ODF) as an international standard in early May. ODF is an open standard to allow sustainable reading and exchange of common office documents. Using open standards like the XML based ODF aims to ensure that users' information is accessible across platforms and applications, even as technologies change. Acceptance of this standard is predicted to be a significant step towards the long-term viability of digital documents.
In March 2006 an organisation was formed to support and encourage the use of ODF in the public sector. The ODF Alliance is a coalition of over 30 organisations from around the world and its mission is "globally to educate policymakers, IT administrators and the public on the benefits and opportunities of the OpenDocument Format".
Press release: ISO and IEC approve OpenDocument OASIS standard for data interoperability of office applications (8 May 2006) Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.iso.org/iso/en/commcentre/pressreleases/2006/Ref1004.html
ODF Alliance. (2006) Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.odfalliance.org/
In June 2006, the National Archives of Australia issued a press release to coincide with the launch of XENA 3.0 Lite, a new version of the XENA (XML Electronic Normalising of Archives) tool, which converts a range of file formats to XML representations for longer term access. The application is available as open source via SourceForge.
Press release: Archives enlists Xena for battle of digital age. (7 June 2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
National Archives of Australia (2006). Open Source Digital Preservation Software from the National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from http://xena.sourceforge.net
The April and June issues of RLG Diginews contain a two part discussion of legal issues surrounding the retention and preservation of emails as required by law in the United States. Part I covers US Federal law and Part II discusses a survey of the regulations in the 50 United States.
Entlich, Richard (2006). 'FAQ: You've Got Mail - Now What? Regulatory & Policy Dilemmas in Email Management: Part I: US Federal Environment' RLG DigiNews 10(2), 15 April 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Entlich, Richard (2006). 'FAQ: You've Got Mail - Now What? Regulatory & Policy Dilemmas in Email Management: Part II. US State Environment' RLG DigiNews 10(3), 15 June 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Paul Keorbin from the National Library of Australia has written a report on the Australian domain harvest conducted in the second half of 2005. Report on the Whole Domain Harvest discusses the Library's first whole Australian domain harvest which was conducted during June and July 2005. The crawl was undertaken by the Internet Archive on behalf of the Library, and approximately 185 million unique documents were crawled from 811,000 hosts. The total size of the harvested content is 6.69 terabytes. The main objectives of the project were:
- to observe and analyse the performance of the Heritrix crawl robot
- test the ability to automatically crawl a large Web domain and analyse the success of the breadth and depth of the crawl
- obtain content that could be used as a test bed for approaches to delivering access to content
- development of a clear understanding the Australian Web domain.
The next harvest is planned for the second half of 2006.
Koerbin, Paul. (2005). Report on the Whole Domain Harvest. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In May, a paper was presented at the 1st Colloquium of Library Information Employees of the V4 + Countries on the long term preservation of Web resources in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses current and future developments of the WebArchiv, a project to selectively archive the Czech Web cultural heritage. It outlines the acquisition and access process, the hardware and software infrastructure and aspects of national and international cooperation for the project.
Updated information on archiving the Czech Web is also available on the PADI Web archiving topic page.
Zabieka, Petr (2006). Digital Cultural Heritage and the Cooperation of National Memory Institutes. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
National Library of Australia. PADI : Web Archiving. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/topics/92.html
Tomba, the Portuguese Web Archive was developed by the Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa and contains sites gathered from the Portuguese Web since 2002. Tomba archives and provides access to all new pages and the different versions of previous pages. A paper by Gomes and Silva, which will be presented at the upcoming ECDL 2006 conference in September, describes the architecture of the Tomba prototype. The paper also discusses strategies to populate the Web archive, selection, and access.
The authors have also published another article using the Portuguese Web Archive as the basis for their research. This paper, on modelling information persistence on the Web, will be presented at ICWE - The Sixth International Conference on Web Engineering in July 2006. Over a three year period the researchers measured URL and content persistence using Tomba. The paper discusses what characterises the persistent URLs and gives reasons for lack of persistence.
Tomba : Portuguese Web Archive. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Gomes, D. and Silva, Mario J. (2006) Design and Selection Criteria for a National Web Archive. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Gomes, D and Silva, Mario J. (2006). Modelling Information Persistence on the Web . Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
A paper describing the state of Danish Web archiving after the introduction of new legal deposit laws has been published. In July 2005, new legal deposit laws in Denmark gave the Royal Library and the State and University Library the mandate to gather and preserve the Danish domain of the Internet. This paper, DK Domain : in Words and Figures, discusses the initial cross section harvesting that occurred from July to October 2005. Also discussed are the technical specifications of the harvest, harvest limitations, statistics on file types and the size of Danish Web sites.
Andersen, Bjarne (2006). DK Domain : in Words and Figures. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In June, the National Diet Library (Japan) released an English outline of the results of its Survey on the Comprehensive Collection, Storage and Archive of Japanese Web sites. The survey outline includes information on Web crawling, Web archiving requirements, storing and archiving Web data and browsing archived Web data. The survey was conducted from October 2004 to March 2005 and, as at March 2005, it was estimated that the total amount of Japanese Web data was 18.4 TB.
National Diet Library (Japan) (2006). Survey on Comprehensive Collection, Storage, and Archiving of Japanese Web sites. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.ndl.go.jp/en/aboutus/bulkresearch2005summary_e.html
A Web site now available for the project Politisches Internet Archiv. The project involves archiving the Web sites of political parties in Germany and it is a joint project of the Archives of Political Foundations and funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The Web site is available only in German.
Politisches Internet Archiv. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.fes.de/archiv/spiegelung/default.htm
In June, the Access Tools Working Group of the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) published two reports: a use case report and a prototype report. In the first report a number of use case scenarios for a Web archive are developed, including cases relating to data usage, user interface, data mining and presentation. The companion report develops prototypes encompassing the functional requirements as suggested by the use case studies.
IIPC Access Working Group.(2006). Use Cases for Access to Internet Archives. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
IIPC Access Working Group. (2006). Prototypes Related to IIPC Access Working Group Use Cases. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
The Internet Archive has released a new service. Archive-it is a subscription service established by the Internet Archive together with various partners from state archives and university libraries. It allows subscribers to build, manage and search their own unique Web archive containing only the content they are interested in harvesting. This allows these collections to be more in-depth and focussed on a particular area than the general Web archive. Archive-It collections have more functionality as they can be searched in full text, whereas the Internet Archive, via the Wayback Machine, cannot be searched in this way. The Web site provides tours of the user interface and applications, an extensive list of FAQs and access to the archived collections of the pilot partners.
Internet Archive. (2006). Archive-it. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.archiveit.org
In May, the AHDS (Arts and Humanities Data Service) released the final draft of the report Digital Images Archiving Study. The report is part of a series of feasibility studies produced by the AHDS which aim to assess the preservation risk and retention criteria for digital content. The purpose of the study is to define the preservation requirements of digital image files and to determine archiving methodologies and future research directions. Issues discussed include the properties of digital images, preservation methods, images metadata, life cycle models and assessing preservation costs.
Anderson, S. et al. (2006). Digital Images Archiving Study. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
TASI (Technical Advisory Service for Images) has released a public blog, TASI Lightbox, which includes information on copyright, digital preservation, file formats and storage of images. TASI has also updated many of its advice documents including those on storing digital data and file formats.
TASI (2006). TASI Lightbox. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.tasi.ac.uk/blog/
In April, the OpenRAW initiative, seeking digital image preservation through open documentation, published results from a survey undertaken between January and March this year. The survey was conducted to provide an opportunity to digital photographers, archivists and other interested parties to voice their opinions regarding proprietary RAW imaging formats. The OpenRAW Web site states that 'More than two-thirds of the 19,207 participants expressed concern that they won't be able to open or edit raw files created by older digital cameras.'
OpenRAW (2006). OpenRAW Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.openraw.org/
OpenRAW (2006). 2006 RAW Survey. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.openraw.org/2006rawsurvey/
CLIR published a report in March, commissioned by the National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, which assesses current standards and practices in capturing analogue sound for digital preservation. The report is based on a meeting of audio experts held in January 2004. It includes summaries of the meeting discussions and recommendations on practices and procedures for transferring analogue discs and tapes. It also includes a 'road map' for analogue to digital conversion.
CLIR. (2006). Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Transferring Analog Discs and Tapes. CLIR pub 137 Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
In May, a new wiki was launched by PrestoSpace which features extensive information on audiovisual preservation. Developed by Richard Wright, the Preservation Guide covers many areas including mapping archive holdings, developing a preservation strategy, preservation planning, budgeting and storage options. Much of the wiki uses information from PrestoSpace and other sources of information will eventually be incorporated. It is planned that entries will be able to be edited and maintained by the audiovisual preservation community.
Wright, Richard (2006). Preservation Guide. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.bbcarchive.org.uk/pmwiki/
In June, the AHDS (Arts and Humanities Data Service) released the final draft of the report Moving Images and Sound Archiving Study. The report is part of a series of feasibility studies produced by the AHDS which aim to assess the preservation risk and retention criteria for digital content. The Moving Images and Sound Archiving Study has been funded to understand more fully the preservation challenges of digital moving image and sound files, to scope the preservation requirements and to determine archiving methodologies and future research directions. Issues that relate to moving images and sound that are explored include their properties, preservation methods, metadata, life cycle models and assessment of preservation costs.
Wilson, A. et al. (2006). Moving Images and Sound Archiving Study. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Also in June, UNESCO announced that 27 October would be World Day for Audiovisual Heritage. Celebrated annually, the purpose of this event is to raise global awareness of the need to preserve the world's audiovisual heritage. A feasibility study has also been launched to discuss issues, objectives, costs and expected results.
Press release : UNESCO World Day for Audiovisual Heritage â€“ Feasibility Study Launched. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
As part of the forthcoming monograph, Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: From Theory to Practice, Donald J. Waters has written a chapter entitled "Preserving the Knowledge Commons". In this chapter, the author uses preserving e-journals to illustrate the issues of preserving the digital knowledge commons. Topics include preservation roles, responsibilities, organizational models and copyright.
Waters, Donald J. (2006). "Preserving the Knowledge Commons" in Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: From Theory to Practice. Cambridge: MIT Press. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
An article by Kathrin Schroeder discusses URN management at the Die Deutsche Bibliothek (National Library of Germany) as it occurs within the framework of the EPICUR (Enhancement of Persistent Identifier Services - Comprehensive Method for Unequivocal Resource Identification) project. URNs have been included in the National Bibliography Number (NBN) since 2001. The NBNs are used for many types of digital objects. The article discusses the administration and structure of the NBN, NBN resolution services and the URN resolver demonstration site.
Schroeder, Kathrin (2006). Persistent Identification for the Permanent Referencing of Digital Resources: the Activities of the EPICUR Project: Enhanced Uniform Resource Name (URN) Management at Die Deutsche Bibliothek Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?IssueID=649107C7FD63
A National Institute of Standards and Technology meeting in March on long-term knowledge retention inspired this article, focused on the archiving of engineering data, ranging from emails to CAD models. A report on the workshop is expected in late spring, but this article provides many interesting points and examples raised at the workshop, such as 'the world churns out enough digital data to fill the Library of Congress every 15 minutes'.
Jackson, W. (2006). 'Modern Relics: NIST and Others Work on How to Preserve Data for Later Use' Government Computer News, (19 June 2006). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.gcn.com/print/25_16/41069-1.html
4.1 Recent events
The Library in Bits and Bytes: Digital Library Symposium. 29 September 2005.
In March the proceedings from this symposium held at the University of Maryland were published online. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
JORUM, JISC and DCC Meeting on the Long-term Curation and Preservation of Learning Objects. 9 February 2006
This meeting was held at the Wolfson Medical Building, University of Glasgow. Presentations are available from the Digital Curation Centre Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/jorum-2006/
Digital Preservation in State Government : Best Practices Exchange. March 27-28 2006.
Held in Wilmington, North Carolina, there are summaries of exchange sessions available from the Web site. Sessions include preservation of digital assets, authentication of digital assets, repository systems and identification, selection and appraisal of digital objects. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
A discussion of this forum also appears in an article in the June issue of RLG DigiNews.
Allen, C. E. (2006) 'Foundations for a Successful Digital Preservation Program: Discussions from Digital Preservation in State Government: Best Practices Exchange 2006' RLG DigiNews 10(3), 15 June 2006. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
SURA/ViDe Conference 8th Annual Video Conference : IP-Based Video: Short Term Solutions and Long Term Perspectives. 27-30 March 2006.
This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia. Papers and Web casts of the keynote speaker, Rick Prelinger, and the speakers in the sessions on the topic "To Preserve and Protect - from Digital Rights Management to Digital Asset Preservation" are available from the Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.vide.net/conferences/spr2006/
DPC Briefing on OAIS, 4 April 2006
Various presentations from the briefing day on OAIS are available from the DPC Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Open Source and Sustainability 2006. 10-12 April 2006.
This conference was held Oxford, England. Presentations are now available from the Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
LIFE conference. 20 April, 2006. The British Library, London, UK.
Presentations on subjects including life cycle modelling, modelling digital preservation costs, a legal deposit of digital material case study and a Web archiving case study are available from the Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
Email Curation : Practical Approaches for Long Term Preservation. 24-25 April, 2006.
This two day workshop was held in Newcastle, UK. Presentations delivered during the two sessions, "Email as records" and "Practical tools and approaches" are available from the Digital Curation Centre's Web site. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
DPC Forum on Web Archiving. 12 June 2006
Summary report and PowerPoint presentations in PDF format are now available for this forum, which was held at the British Library Conference Centre, London, UK. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
JCDL 2006 Workshop: Digital Curation and Trusted Repositories: Seeking Success, 15 June 2006
Twelve papers presented at this workshop are available on the conference wiki. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
4.2 Current and forthcoming events
IADIS (International Association for Development of the Information Society) International Conference : e-Society 2006. 13-16 July 2006. University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.iadis.org/es2006/
Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata : PREMIS Tutorial, 17-18 July 2006, Wolfson Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Scotland.
Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/premis-2006/
Digital Preservation Training Programme, 24-28 July 2006, University of York National Science Learning Centre (NSLC) Conference Centre, York, UK. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.ulcc.ac.uk/dptp/future-courses/booking-form.html
EVA London 2006: Electronic Information, the Visual Arts & Beyond, 26-28 July 2006, University College London, London, UK. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.eva-conferences.com/eva_london/2006
DC 2006: Joint Annual Meeting of NAGARA, COSA, and SAA, 30 July - 6 August 2006, Washington, D.C., USA. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.archivists.org/conference/dc2006/index.asp
Australasian Sound Recordings Association (ASRA) Conference 2006, 23 - 25 August 2006, National Film and Sound Archive, Canberra, Australia. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://home.vicnet.net.au/~sound/events/con2006cfp.htm
Long Term Repositories: Taking the Shock Out of the Future, 31 August - 1 September 2006, Conference Room, National Library of Australia. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.apsr.edu.au/longterm/index.htm
Digital Resources in the Humanities and Arts : DRHA 2006, 3-6 September 2006, Dartington College of Arts, Dartington, Totnes, UK. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from:
ECDL 2006 : European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries. 17-22 September 2006, Alicante, Spain. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.ecdl2006.org/index.jsp
IWAW 2006 International Web Archiving Workshop, 21-22 September 2006, Alicante, Spain. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.iwaw.net/06/callforpapers.html
Digital Preservation Management Workshop, 1-6 October 2006. Cornell University. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/dpworkshop/
IADIS International Conference: WWW/Internet 2006, 5-8 October 2006, Murcia, Spain. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.iadis.org/icwi2006/
iPRES International Conference on the Preservation of Digital Objects, 8-10 October 2006, Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://ipres.library.cornell.edu/
Sofia 2006 : Globalization, Digitization, Access and Preservation of Cultural Heritage. 8-10 November, Sofia, Bulgaria. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://slim.emporia.edu/globenet/Sofia2006/Index.htm
2nd International Digital Curation Conference: Digital Data Curation in Practice, 21-22 November 2006, Hilton Glasgow Hotel, Glasgow Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2006/
9th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries ICADL 2006, 27-30 November 2006, Kyoto (Japan). Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://www.icadl2006.org/
International Conference on Digital Libraries ICDL 206, 5-8 December 2006, India Habitat Center, Lodhi Road, New Delhi. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://static.teriin.org/events/icdl/
Open Repositories 2007 : 2nd International Conference on Open Repositories, 23-26 January 2007. Marriott Rivercenter, San Antonio, Texas, US. Retrieved 13 July, 2006 from: http://openrepositories.org/
A comprehensive and frequently updated list of forthcoming events is available from the PADI Web site: http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/format/event.html
Links last updated: 15 October 2009
Warning! Web site links tend to have very short lifetimes, as documents are frequently updated or deleted, Web sites are restructured, domains are renamed or moved, etc. The compilers of this bulletin, therefore, cannot guarantee that all of the URLs in this document will successfully resolve to the resources described here. However, in these cases, try searching for the same resource on the PADI gateway (http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/), which will provide updated URLs wherever possible.