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DPC What's new in digital preservation - Issue 18

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March 2008 - August 2008

To open PDFs you will need Adobe Reader

Compiled by Najla Semple for the Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC)

20 October 2008

This is an archived issue of What's New.

Also available as a print-friendly PDF (132KB).

Known problem links in online versions and PDFs are disabled (or updated when the issue is current) but it is not always possible to annotate the amendments in PDFs with a date or other information which may appear in the online version.

This is a summary of selected recent activity in the field of digital preservation compiled from a number of resources including the digital-preservation and padiforum-l mailing lists. Additional or related items of interest may also be included.


  1. News from organisations and initiatives

    1.1 Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) (UK)

    1.2 Digital Curation Centre (DCC) (UK)

    1.3 JISC (UK)

    1.4 The National Archives (UK)

    1.5 PLANETS

    1.6 nestor (Network of Expertise in Long-Term Storage of Digital Resources)

    1.7 EU activities

    1.8 Other Organisations
  2. Specific themes

    2.1 Digital Preservation - definitions, frameworks and directions

    2.2 Digital Preservation Life Cycle

    2.3 Repositories

    2.4 Research data

    2.5 Legal issues

    2.6 Copyright and IPR

    2.7 Web Archiving

    2.8 Function specific

    2.9 Tools

    2.10 File format preservation

    2.11 Preservation metadata
  3. Digital Preservation-related Blogs
  4. Events

    4.1 Recent Events

    4.2 Current and Forthcoming Events

    4.3 Training Events

1. News from organisations and initiatives

1.1 Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC)

A number of high profile events organised by the DPC were held in the last six months: in April, 'What to Preserve? Significant Properties of Digital Objects' was held. Significant properties are essential characteristics of a digital object which must be preserved over time for the digital object to remain accessible and meaningful. The aim of the workshop was to initiate proper understanding of these properties. 'Digital Preservation Planning: Principles, Examples and the Future with Planets' was held in July jointly with the PLANETS project. The event was an informal and interactive workshop which allowed attendees to share knowledge and experience in digital preservation planning, setting strategy and policy plus first-hand experience of Planets tools and technology. All presentations and further information are available via the DPC website.

A new Technology Watch Report has also been published. This report reviews PDF and the newly introduced PDF/Archive (PDF/A) format as a potential solution to the problem of long-term digital preservation. It suggests adopting PDF/A for archiving electronic documents' as the standard will help preservation and retrieval in the future. It concludes that it can only be done when combined with a comprehensive records management programme and formally established records procedures.

Fanning, B. (2008) Preserving the Data Explosion: Using PDF. Preservation Coalition Technology Watch Series Report 08-02. Retrieved 20 October 2008 from: http://www.dpconline.org/docs/reports/dpctw08-02.pdf

During the last six months the DPC was represented at a number of events and various presentations were given. These include: Records Management Society North Group, 'What's all this about Digital Preservation: Challenges, Methods, Realities' April 2008; Loughborough University - a paper given for the MSc course April 2008; Joint UK-Ireland Digitisation Workshop, 'What's all this about Digital Preservation: Challenges, Methods, Realities' May 2008; Discussion panel member, Life2 Conference, June 2008; Society of Archivists, Data Standards Group AGM 'Digital Preservation; Bits, bytes and baggage' June 2008. The DPC was also present at the annual JISC Conference, Enabling Innovation, where it had an exhibition stand. Retrieved 23 October 2008 from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/events/2008/04/jiscconference08.aspx

The DPC continues to grow, and has recently welcomed a new allied member, the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR).

1.2 Digital Curation Centre (DCC)

The DCC is organising a hands-on training workshop to look at conceptualising, creating, preserving access to and re-using data over time. The DCC's Digital Curation 101 workshop will contribute towards bridging the gap that currently exists between general awareness of preservation and curation issues and the ability to practically address them in a real working environment. Retrieved 23 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/digital-curation-101-2008/

The fourth issue of the International Journal of Digital Curation (IJDC) is now available. This is the most substantial issue to date containing nine papers and eight articles offering valuable insights into the research challenges, service developments, best practice and policy approaches associated with digital curation. The Journal is available from the IJDC website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ijdc.net/ijdc/issue/current

DRAMBORA: In early 2008 a second version of the self-assessment toolkit was released as DRAMBORA Interactive. The on-line tool accumulates feedback and comments received from the pilot assessments and includes features that guide and support the auditor throughout the assessment process and documents its findings. At the time of writing there are over 60 repositories registered and using DRAMBORA Interactive for assessment. The assessment methodology has been tested and commented on in nearly 20 pilot assessments undertaken in an internationally diverse selection of repositories: archives, digital libraries and data centres. Within the context of the DELOS Digital Preservation Cluster four audits of digital library environments were undertaken, using DRAMBORA, with a view to determining common characteristics of digital library repositories, in order to facilitate both knowledge transfer and comparison. The pilot assessments show that the DRAMBORA methodology itself is flexible, and responsive to the structural and contextual peculiarities of individual repositories. The DRAMBORA process places considerable emphasis on demonstrable, and not just inferred, success. It can be used both independently and in association with the other repository assessment checklists.

More information about the tool is at the DRAMBORA website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.repositoryaudit.eu/

1.3 JISC

Digital Preservation and Records Management Programme

There has been much activity in the e-journal archiving space in the last few months with some of the focus shifting towards the JISC-funded EDINA National Data Centre. As of 1st August 2008, the UK LOCKSS Alliance entered into a subscription model service phase and support for that programme has now moved from the University of Glasgow over to EDINA. Another EDINA-based initiative that has just commenced is the PePRS Project (Piloting an e-Journal Preservation Registry). This project will run for two years, in conjunction with the ISSN Centre in Paris, and will look at the feasibility of setting up an effective method of checking long-term archiving arrangements for scholarly journals.

Other recent e-journal activity includes the publication of two reports:

  1. An evaluation of the UK LOCKSS Pilot Project. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:
  2. A Comparative Study of e-Journal Archiving Solutions. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.jisc-collections.ac.uk/projects_and_reports.aspx
    Update 24 November 2008
    New URL

The LIFE2 project concluded in June with a conference at the British Library that showcased the updated and enhanced lifecycle costing model. The final report is available. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/11758/

Three more short-term projects are on the verge of publishing reports, all of which will be made available via links on the JISC Digital Preservation home page. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/preservation

  1. The Digital Preservation Policies Study has looked at a wide range of policy statements from a number of different organisations and provides a framework and guidance for the UK HE sector to tackle preservation issues in a top-down way.
  2. The JISC PoWR (Preservation of Web Resources) Project has devised a handbook that addresses preservation issues for content contained within institutional websites.
  3. The Preservation of e-Learning Materials Study has surveyed attitudes towards the value and purpose of preserving these kinds of materials.

This period has seen a number of events in which JISC-funded activity has featured. The Significant Properties Workshop at the British Library was well attended and provoked a wide range of commentary about the challenges of defining and characterising digital objects. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:
http://digitalcuration.blogspot.com/2008/04/seriiously-seeking-significance.html. There was further focus on significant properties at the IS&T Archiving 2008 conference which featured a tutorial session on their use for digital preservation purposes.

Current JISC-funded preservation projects were joined by representatives from the PLANETS, CASPAR and SHAMAN projects for a Digital Preservation Forum at the end of June. This was a chance for projects to swap information and to map their activities onto the DCC's Digital Preservation Life Cycle Model. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/projects-forum-2008/

The development phase of the JISC-funded Data Audit Framework is still underway. The Framework provides organisations with the means to identify, locate and assess the current management of their research data assets. Armed with such information they can begin to improve on existing data management practices. Work on the project will continue through four pilot implementation projects which will test DAF in a range of HE contexts. Training will also be provided for organisations that plan to use the tool. For details of the next workshop to be held in Edinburgh on 1st December please see the DCC events pages. Retrieved 19 October from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/programme/ Further details on the Data Audit Framework are available on the project website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.data-audit.eu/

1.4 The National Archives, UK

The Digital Continuity project: The need for a government shared service to address the risk to information caused by obsolete technologies was recognised in 2007. The project is being lead by The National Archives. Initially targeting central government, the final service should be relevant to a much wider customer base, including government agencies, local government and non-departmental public bodies. The project team has consulted central government departments to find out what business outcomes and benefits they expect from a service. They are looking at the commercial sector to find out what relevant products and services currently exist, and where any gaps may be - as a precursor to working with commercial suppliers to address the many technical challenges of digital obsolescence. The team is currently developing the guidance and standards departments will need to deliver a digital continuity shared service, for example helping government departments to identify risks and benefits, develop a digital continuity strategy and implement an action plan to mitigate risks. Their aim is to deliver a flexible, quality-assured, value-for-money shared service that organisations can tailor to address their specific digital continuity requirements. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/digitalcontinuity

The Web Continuity project: The National Archives has rapidly expanded its web archiving activities to include the whole of UK central government. Harvesting 3 times a year, the Web Continuity programme includes websites closing as part of the 'Transformational Government Web Rationalisation' programme. The collection was developed both to provide a record and to maintain access to government information over time. Web Continuity is innovative in both its scale and its approach to fixing broken links on live sites with redirection. By deploying a redirection component, Web Continuity will provide persistent access to legacy information on the live web and in the archive. The National Archives is busy engaging with government departments to encourage usage of the redirection component and XML sitemaps to support the archiving process. Central government departments are currently working on implementation. The new approach has been widely commended in government and the web archiving community.
The collection will be published online in phases from late November 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008 from:

1.5 PLANETS (Preservation and Long-term Access through Networked Services)

There has been further development of the major software components of the Planets platform:

The Planets Preservation Planning Tool (Plato) has been demonstrated at a variety of events around Europe, including workshops where delegates have had hands-on experience of the tool. Feedback from these events has informed further development of Plato. A new version, undergoing usability testing by partner institutions, is due for release in November 2008. The Planets team is delighted that Plato shared first prize for best demonstration at the ECDL 2008 conference. More information about Plato, including a draft User Manual and MS PowerPoint walkthrough can be found from the Planets website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/dp/plato .

The Planets Interoperability Framework allows third-parties to plug-in tools and services. The second version has been released. The Planets Testbed is a controlled software environment that allows researchers and practitioners to conduct digital preservation experiments and establish empirically the most appropriate strategies and tools for particular content. The Testbed has had a new release and has been demonstrated at outreach events.

The Planets Comparator, a tool that enables XCDL characteristics of two files to be compared automatically is also being developed. (XCDL – Extensible Characteristics Description Language.)

Planets has developed a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents such as policies, strategies, workflows and plans. The model defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the method and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation. The model is described in the Planets External Report PP2-D2 (see Planets website). Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: www.http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/programme.html
Update 24 November 2008

Planets has compiled an inventory of over 100 file formats found commonly in digital objects, plus an inventory of the tools and actions that are available to preserve them. This makes it possible to identify gaps and create a blueprint of tools that will be required.

A recent report from the PLANETS team hasanalysed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. The paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning
tools through an XML representation. The paper can be found at the PLANETS website.

Dappert, A., Ballaux, B., Mayr, M., and van Bussel, S. (2008) Report on policy and strategy models for libraries, archives and data centres. PLANETS report PP2-D2. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

An outline of the technical aspects of PLANETS is presented in a DCC paper, which also describes the three aspects of preservation tools, Characterisation, Migration and Emulation.Retrieved...

Donnelly, M (2008) Planets Testbed. DCC Technology Watch Report. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

1.6 nestor (Network of Expertise in Long-Term Storage of Digital Resources)

The German standards committee, DIN, has been working with nestor to include digital preservation in its documentation. The German Library and Documentation Standardisation Committee is responsible for standardisation and is addressing important issues such as trusted repositories; persistent identifiers; legal admissibility.

Nestor has recently held another successful Summer school in June 2008 which also included a number of workshops.

Computer games and emulation was the subject of a workshop entitled "Replayed - Preservation of digital artefacts based on example of computer games" and many resources are now available on the nestor website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A revised version of the nestor handbook has been made available online to coincide with the 2008 Bibliothekartag (German Library Congress).

The "nestor handbook - A small encyclopaedia of digital preservation" is a living document which will continue to be adapted and adjusted in line with ever-changing circumstances. The most striking new features of the current version are the direct access to the article level and the commentary function. The latter permits direct contact with the editor responsible for the article, allowing the author to discuss questions, notes and comments with him/her directly. In the future, users will be able to track any changes/processing of the articles, as a history function has also been incorporated. Furthermore, the scope of the handbook has been significantly expanded, with a number of articles being added. The handbook is at the nestor website.

The Newsletter from April 2008 can be found (in English) on the nestor website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

1.7 EU Activities

The first round of FP7 - ICT has funded three projects. The first is SHAMAN, which stands for Sustaining Heritage Access through Multivalent ArchiviNg. It intends to look into distributed storage, refine the OAIS model, and to develop content management systems. More information can be found via the project website. Retrieved 29 October 2008 from: http://www.shaman-ip.eu/

Another project funded by FP7 is the PARSE.Insight project which aims to support e-science infrastructure, by investigating funding mechanisms and data management practice. The aim of PARSE.Insight is to draw up a roadmap and recommendations to support the e-Infrastructure for the digital preservation and long-term accessibility of this raw academic data. The project partners' first analyse the digital preservation methods and the communities involved with the provision of raw academic data. They then carry out a Europe-wide survey to determine how raw academic data is currently being archived. Three case studies in the areas of high-energy physics, geoscience and social science are providing specific and complementary information. The project has its own website, which includes more information and project deliverables. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.parse-insight.eu/

The German Research Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) have collaborated with a number of key German research institutions to sign an e-infrastructure policy. The Joint Priority Initiative, which will run from 2008 to 2012, looks at six principle areas, including preservation of research data, legal issues and preservation of e-journals. A description of the initiative, titled Priority Initiative 'Digital Information' by the Alliance of German Science Organisations is available in English from the DFG website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

1.8 Other Organisations

The National Diet Library of Japan has published a section about digital preservation on its website. As the national deposit library, it has an obligation to collect and preserve digital materials and this section includes details on how they are going to approach digital preservation, including a link to its Digital Archiving System. Everything is available in English from its website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Oxford University have recently been awarded three-year Mellon Foundation funding for futureArch. This new project intends to establish a workflow for the library to seamlessly preserve both traditional and digital archives, moving from a project environment to a service. A project website will be available soon, in the meantime, to find out more refer to the Press Release and project blog. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://futurearchives.blogspot.com/. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ouls.ox.ac.uk/news/2008_aug_18

UKOLN have launched a Cultural Heritage area of their website aimed at the cultural heritage sector. It includes an area on digital preservation which includes a number of briefing papers on preservation, such as web archiving and legal issues. Much of the information pertains to preservation of cultural materials. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/cultural-heritage/preservation/

Sun PASIG is a project set up by Sun Microsystems, which stands for Sun Preservation and Archiving Special Interest Group. The aim of the group is to host a special interest group open to both commercial and academic organisations aiming to share experiences in a number of areas: OAIS; open repository solutions; storage architecture; commercial solutions. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.sun-pasig.org/

NDIIPP: The inaugural issue of the Library of Congress Digital Preservation Newsletter was issued in March 2008 and it is issued monthly. A subscription service is available and Archived copies are available from http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/news/archive.html

2. Specific themes

2.1 Digital Preservation - definitions, frameworks & directions

The Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) in the USA has released a set of Definitions of Digital Preservation and it has now been further approved. The list can be found on the ALCTS website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Brian Lavoie updates us on the activities of the Blue Ribbon Task Force which is addressing economic sustainability in digital preservation. The task force aims to raise awareness and offer guidance and this article sets out the main issues involved in sustainable preservation, and the need to provide more economic models.

In a series of two articles, Catherine Marshall looks at the technological and social environment in which we are rapidly creating digital materials. The main focus of the papers is on personal archives, and the challenges that individuals face in undertaking their own archiving. Current technologies are examined, and the second paper puts forward a number of possible solutions, such as distributed storage and accessibility.

A clear outline of the issues involved in digital curation has been released by the DCC. The paper covers most of the issues in curation, including its importance from both HE and an e-Science perspective. It provides a good introduction to the subject for those starting out in curation.

Henry Gladney has released an ePrint which challenges the term 'digital preservation'. He puts forward the notion that we should opt for creating instead 'durable' objects. An infrastructure to create this is well within our reach, however progress has been impeded by slow collaboration between different sectors.

Lavoie, B (2008) 'The Fifth Blackbird: some thoughts on economically sustainable digital preservation' D-Lib Magazine (14) 3/4 March/April 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Marshall, C (2008) 'Re-thinking Personal Digital Archiving Part 1' D-Lib Magazine (14) 3/4 March/April 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Marshall, C (2008) 'Re-thinking Personal Digital Archiving Part 2' D-Lib Magazine (14) 3/4 March/April 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Gladney, H (2008) Durable Digital Objects Rather Than Digital Preservation. ErpaePrints. ePrint. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Abbott, D (2008) What is Digital Curation? DCC Briefing Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

2.2 Digital Preservation Life Cycle

The DCC has published an FAQ on the lifecycle model created by them. It looks at the model from the perspective of different stakeholders; creators, archivists, users, and explains how to use the model, its benefits and all the different action points within the model. The Journal of Digital Curation includes an article by Sarah Higgins on the further developed lifecycle model, initially presented as a draft, and now finalised. It is to be used as a tool for curators, and the article highlights how the DCC plans to put the tool into practice.

Abbott, D (2008) Frequently Asked Questions about the DCC Curation Lifecycle Model. DCC FAQ Series. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Higgins, S (2008) 'The DCC Curation Lifecycle Model' International Journal of Digital Curation. V.3 No.1 Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ijdc.net/ijdc/article/view/69/69

Persistent Identifiers

The DPE has published a useful briefing paper which explains why persistent identifiers (PIs) are so useful for preservation, especially in the context of cultural heritage materials. The paper states that use of just URLs is not a solution, outlines some key system requirements, and what technology solutions there are. The DPE has also released a paper looking at identifiers in general, how they are used in the preservation process and how crucial their interoperability and re-use are. Another article in Ariadne also clarifies what PIs are and, very usefully, explains all the other factors associated, such as DOIs, OpenURLs and the Handle System.

Bellini, E., Cirinna, C., & Lunghi, M (2008) Persistent Identifiers for Cultural Heritage. A DPE Briefing Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Tonkin, E (2008) 'Persistent Identifiers: Considering the Options' Ariadne 56 July 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Paskin, N (2008) Identifier interoperability. A DPE Briefing Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Representation Information

Representation Information is the subject of a substantial article, fairly technical in approach. The preservation environment is a crucial aspect to record in metadata during the archiving process. It describes Assessment Criteria and Infrastructure Independence.

Moore, R. (2008) 'Towards a theory of digital preservation' International Journal of Digital Curation. V.3 No.1 Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ijdc.net/ijdc/article/view/63/82


A briefing paper by DPE defines appraisal and how it applies to the scientific digital record. It touches on how to tackle the process and the issues involved.

Faundeen, J (2008) The Challenge of Appraising Science Records. A DPE Briefing Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:


The DCC has published a clear briefing paper on annotation in which it outlines its benefits in the curation process. The paper also highlights how it is used in practice and how it can be seen from both an HE and e-Science perspective.

Abbott, D (2008) Annotation. DCC Briefing Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

2.3 Repositories

A recent conference on open repositories in April this year touched on digital preservation. A few sessions touched on digital preservation, and experts on DSpace, Eprints and Fedora were present.

Morris, C (2008) 'Strands of a global web of knowledge come together at the third international open repositories conference 2008' D-Lib Magazine (14) 5/6 May/June 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A recent article by Dorothea Salo tackles the future of institutional repositories, and looks at the current situation where repository managers are often not fully supported by the rest of the institution. A reconsideration of the role of repositories is needed.

Salo, D (2008) 'Innkeeper at the Roach Motel' Library Trends v.57 no.2, Fall 2008. Available as a pre-print. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/22088

An event called the Repository Fringe was held at the end of July to look at a range of repository activities, including some presentations on preservation aspects of repositories. The event has its own website containing all presentations. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.repositoryfringe.org/

The Florida Centre for Library Automation has recently announced its award for a new project, 'Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR): A Demonstration Project'. The aim of the project is to investigate the exchange of information between institutional repositories. The 2-year project will create a transfer format. More information is available on the FCLA website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://blogs.fcla.edu/index.php/digitalarchive/2008/09/

2.4 Research Data

Preservation of research data within Higher Education (HE) is the subject of a recent paper. Institutions tackling digital preservation will find the findings in this paper of use, both with regard to costing, and the case studies which detail how some organisations are tackling preservation of large amounts of research data.

Beagrie, N., Chruszcz, J., & Lavoie, B (2008) Keeping research data safe: A cost model and guidance for UK universities. Charles Beagrie Limited. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Data management in Higher Education is the subject of another paper which looks at the role of data services in HE and how service providers are offering and promoting their expertise. Digital preservation is also touched on throughout the study, as is its impact and cost. Initiatives in Australia, USA and the EU are looked at, and compared to UK data management services.

Serco Consulting (2008) The UK research data service feasibility study. UKRDS Interim report. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Two data librarians are interviewed for CILIP about their role in curating and managing datasets. The changing nature of librarianship is highlighted as professionals have to manage more and more diverse digital materials. The interview is available via the CILIP website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A report by the Research Information Network looks at the nature of sharing research data and how to realise the full potential for its re-use. It identifies a lack of data management infrastructure and skills, which in turn impedes preservation and curation. The report can be found via the RIN website.

Research Information Network (2008) To Share or Not to Share: publication and quality assurance of research data outputs. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A new JISC funded project, the Data Audit Framework (DAF), is led by HATII at the University of Glasgow. The aim of the project is to assist organisations manage their data, as well as creating an online tool to help users gather information about different aspects of data management. DAF has its own website and will officially be launched on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.data-audit.eu/

The DCC and the Research Information Network held a joint forum aimed at staff from data centres and those dealing with research data preservation. The workshop focused on practical implementation and aimed at encouraging interoperability between organisations. Presentations are available from the DCC website. Retrieved 23 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/data-forum-2008/

2.5 Legal Issues

An article in the Journal of Digital Curation looks at how a public institution is affected by the Freedom of Information Act and other legal acts. The article has some preservation applicability as it deals with managing information under the Act, such as exceptions and access controls. The Data Protection Act is mentioned in a DCC paper which looks at lawful access of personal data, namely medical data. Creative Commons Licensing (CC) is the subject of another DCC paper which explains the act, and the delicate balance between total control over intellectual property and a radical free-for-all. The CC creates a good balance and provides a range of access levels, which in turn simply the curation process which is all about access and re-use of objects.

Pelton, C & Thorley, M (2008) 'The Fit Between the UK Environmental Information Regulations and the Freedom of Information Act' International Journal of Digital Curation. V.3 No.1 Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

McGinley, M (2008) Sharing Medical Data - the Legal Considerations. DCC Legal Watch Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

McGinley, M (2008) Creative Commons Licensing. DCC Legal Watch Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

2.6 Copyright and IPR

A recent publication provides a clear overview of digital preservation activities in the UK, as well as Austria, Netherlands and the US. The report clarifies legal deposit, describes copyright laws, and how UK law might hinder digital preservation.

Besek, J., LeFurgy, W., Weston, C., Muir, A., Atkinson, B., Carroll, E., et al. (2008) International Study on the Impact of Copyright Law on Digital Preservation. Library of Congress, JISC, Open Access to Knowledge Law Project, SURF Foundation. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

The United States 1976 Copyright Law has been the focus of a study group that has released its final report. It addressed how the Act might need to be amended to take into account the changing needs in the library world, including digital preservation.

The Section 108 Study Group Report. (2008) United States Copyright Office & NDIIPP. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A conference was held in Geneva in July about preservation and copyright. Presentations are available from the World Intellectual Property Organisation, and it provides a useful set of resources on the topic. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

2.7 Web Archiving

The Library of Congress (LOC) is collaborating with the California Digital Library, the University of North Texas Libraries, the Internet Archive and the U.S. Government Printing Office on a subject-specific web archiving project to collect all websites pertaining to the end of the presidential term. The full press release is at the LOC website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.loc.gov/today/pr/2008/08-139.html

The Web Curator Tool is the subject of an article in D-Lib, describing the first year of using the tool in a production environment. The article details how the tool is used by library staff at the National Library of New Zealand as well as future plans for the service.

Payntor, G., Joe, S., Lala, V., & Lee, G (2008) 'A year of selective web archiving with the web curator at the National Library of New Zealand'. D-Lib v.14 No. 5/6 May/June 2008 Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A new web archiving project, Living Web Archives, LiWA has been initiated. The main expected outcome of the LiWA project is a set of innovative methods and services for capturing, preserving, analysing and enriching web content, which implement the vision of a Living Web Archive. It is the intention of the project partners to turn Web archives from pure Web page storages into “living Web archives” within the next three years. The LiWA project will address R&D challenges in the three areas: Archive Fidelity, Archive coherence and Archive interpretability. . A project website is available. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.liwa-project.eu/

A JISC-funded project started in April, JISC-PoWR. A joint project between UKOLN and ULCC Data Archive will run workshops, create resources and a workshop about web preservation. A first draft of the workbook is now available. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A recent article in Ariadne describes a one-day web archiving workshop held by the JISC-PoWR team. Some of the subjects touched on in the article are drivers for preservation; the dichotomy that exists between the archive manager and the web manager, and the suitability of websites for long term archiving.

Emmott, S (2008) 'Preservation of Web Resources: Making a Start'. Ariadne 56. July 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue56/jisc-powr-rpt/

A new web curators' mailing list has been established by the international internet preservation consortium (IIPC). To sign up, go to the netpreserv website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

The second IIPC General Assembly was held at the National Library of Australia 7-11 April 2008. Fifty four delegates from 28 IIPC member institutions attended the meeting, which included expert discussions, project presentations, and tool demonstrations, and meetings of the four working groups, technical committee, and steering committee. Balloting on the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 28500: Information and documentation - The WARC File Format ended in September.

2.8 Function-specific

Email archiving

A project based at the North Carolina State Archives is researching the preservation of emails. Software has been developed to capture email and transfer it to XML for preservation purposes. Three different state archives are now working in collaboration to test the software. More about the project including its exact goals and update reports can be found online at the project website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.records.ncdcr.gov/EmailPreservation/


A recent briefing paper has been published that outlines issues for archiving AV material. The author recommends three major changes that are needed for the field to hope for longevity. Unique problems for AV archiving are explained, as well as the benefits digital library technology holds for archiving purposes.

Wright, R (2008) Preservation of Digital Audiovisual Content. DPE Briefing Paper. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Nestor recently held a workshop on emulation of computer games. A write up of the event (in German) can be found via the nestor website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:
http://nestor.cms.hu-berlin.de/moinwiki/AG_Media and more information (in English) is also available.

e-Journal Archiving

A recent survey by Portico looked at attitudes of library directors towards digital preservation of e-journals. The study also aimed to gather sufficient data to assist library managers allocated funds for digital preservation. While many respondents to the survey agreed that digital preservation of e-journals was crucial, a large gap was identified as to any preservation action taken. The announcement at the Portico site provides access to the report.

Portico (2008) Digital Preservation of e-journals in 2008: Urgent action revisited. Results from a Portico/Ithaka survey of US Library directors. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Two reports on LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) have been released. A Technology Watch Report has been released by the DCC which sets out details of how the LOCKSS service works and is able to address preservation challenges such as centralised storage and budgetary issues. The article also addresses the tool's functionality and outlines some implementation sites. The JISC-funded study looks at the current LOCKSS pilot in UK HE, the quality of its technical support, how successful it is in negotiating with publishers, as well as giving a number of recommendations as to the future of the service.

Rusbridge, A (2008) The LOCKSS Approach to electronic journal archiving. Digital Curation Centre Technology Watch Report. University of Glasgow. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Dalton, P & Conyers, A (2008) Evaluation of the JISC UK LOCKSS Pilot. Birmingham City University. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

A JISC funded study has been published which looks at existing e-journal archiving solutions, six in total. It outlines the issues involved in e-journal archiving and puts forward some possible scenarios that the information world could face in terms of gaining access to e-journals (for example, publishers ceasing to exist) as well as criteria for judging new solutions. The report concludes the report with a set of recommendations.

Morrow, T., Beagrie, N., Jones, M., & Chruszcz, J (2008) A comparative study of e-journal archiving solutions. JISC. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:


An interesting Blog entry on the DCC blog debates whether or not to archive RAW or TIFF files. The entry describes the format but also the storage/cost implications. The full dialogue can be followed on the blog website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Another commentary can be found by Philipp Hoehler on the Kopal website about RAW data and it also touches on JPEG as a preservation standard. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

2.9 Tools

The DCC have developed a methodology for validating the effectiveness of a preservation strategy. The methodology involves creating a test bed and the intention is now to apply the methodology to assess users' needs. The paper, which also explores previous methodologies, can be found at the DCC website.

DCC & PLANETS (2008) DCC Methodology for designing and evaluating curation and preservation experiments v.1.0. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

DAITTS (Dark Archive in the Sunshine State) has enhanced version 1.5 of its open source software. DAITTS provides institutional repository software that facilitates active preservation. It is freely available and was developed by the Florida Centre for Library Automation. The new version is now able to ingest a greater number of files, as well as delivering XML ingest reports. Work is now beginning on version 2.0. A briefing and milestones paper is available to look at from the DAITTS website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://daitss.fcla.edu/wiki/DaitssTwo

The development of JHOVE2 is highlighted on the Library of Congress website. This second version will have enhanced features, such as more detailed assessment of the file; this is in the light of increasingly complex file formats. The new version will be available in 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:
. A further, more detailed description document is available from the JHOVE website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

BagIt is a new transfer tool developed by the Library of Congress and the California Digital Library. The concept is based on 'bag it and tag it' where the contents is put in a bag, surrounded by a machine readable text tag. The aim is to simplify the transfer of large amounts of data between repositories. A full specification is available online. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

The Data Seal of Approval is developed by the Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) in the Netherlands. The new resource will assist the data curator establish whether or not key standards are being met. A document is available from the project website which outlines the quality guidelines. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

See above, under DCC for update on DRAMBORA.

2.10 File format preservation

An article in D-Lib explores the further emergence of the JPEG 2000 file format as an archival standard. The study highlights results of case studies that look at image quality. The results are written up in detail and the article contains many visual examples. As a follow up to the increasing use of JPEG 2000, an open source image server has recently been created, to the benefit of the preservation community. The alternative has always been to use commercial software, which comes with its own complications. Another article in D-Lib outlines the development of this new software.

Buonora, P & Liberati, F (2008) 'A Format for Digital Preservation of images. A study on JPEG 2000 File Robustness' D-Lib Magazine (14) 7/8 July/August 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Chute, R & Van de Sompel, H (2008) 'Introducing djatoka. A Reuse Friendly, Open Source JPEG 2000 Image Server' D-Lib Magazine (14) 9/10 September/October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

The National Library of the Netherlands has released a report in response to a need to archive more heterogeneous materials, other than just PDF. A file format risk assessment was carried out, along with seven criteria by which to analyse each format. The report hopes to gather feedback on the conclusions reached.

Rog, J., & van Wijk, C (2008) Evaluating File Formats for Long-term Preservation. The Hague, The Netherlands: National Library of the Netherlands. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

The Florida Digital Archive has released a statement on recommended data formats for preservation. JPEG 2000 (lossless) is now supported. The paper is available via the FDA website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

The Library of Congress website now lists a number of standards, the full specifications of which can be downloaded. This section of their website is intended to provide updates of file format standards, and how sustainable and suitable they are for preservation. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/

The DPC has released a technology watch report on use of PDF/A. The paper analyses the standard for its preservation suitability and it also explores other PDF standards available. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dpconline.org/docs/reports/dpctw08-02.pdf

The nestor project in Germany will hold a seminar in November on PDF/A. In this nestor seminar experts from the PDF/A Competence Center will be reviewing and addressing the following issues: Which characteristics make PDF/A a suitable archive format; Which objects are suitable for archiving in PDF/A; How are PDF/A files created (conversion workflows); How can you check whether the PDF/A files in your archive are valid; What are the limits of PDF/A and metadata. More information is at the nestor website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

2.11 Preservation metadata

The PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata 2.0 was announced in April. Following a revision of the standard in 2005, mainly based on user experience of the standard, PREMIS is technology neutral. This new revision contains more information on rights metadata and significant properties. The dictionary is available from the PREMIS website, as is an XML schema to assist implementation. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.loc.gov/premis/v2/premis-2-0.pdf XML schema: Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

An article in D-Lib explores the use of three different metadata schemas for archiving eJournals, each schema playing a specific role in the metadata package - providing structural, preservation and descriptive information. The article describes the process of creating an Archival Information Package and highlights that not one metadata schema exists that can deliver all metadata specifications for preservation.

Dappert, A & Enders, M (2008) 'Using METS, PREMIS and MODS for archiving eJournals' D-Lib Magazine (14) 9/10 September/October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Another article in D-Lib explains the development of an Australian sub profile to the Generic METS profile. The article details the data content models, examines METS, and provides an interesting overview of an organisation tailoring a metadata standard to suit their needs.

Pearce, J., Pearson, D., Williams, M., & Yeadon, S (2008) 'The Australian METS profile - A journey about Metadata' D-Lib Magazine (14) 3/4 March/April 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march08/pearce/03pearce.html

The Metadata Working Group have recently released its first set of guidelines for image metadata. The group is comprised of commercial photographic companies, and the report includes some specific core vocabulary, existing standards, and aims at standardising metadata across applications. The guidelines can be found at the working group's website.

Metadata Working Group (2008) Guidelines for Handling Image Metadata. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

3. Digital preservation-related Blogs

'Digital Repositories and Preservation' Thoughts on digital repositories, digital preservation, and scholarly communication.  Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://repositoryblog.com/

'Da Blog': Primarily for University of London Computer Centre's Digital Archives staff Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://dablog.ulcc.ac.uk/

'The Ten Thousand Year Blog' Archivist-Historian David Mattison's musings and Web tracks on digital culture preservation issues. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://davidmattison.ca/2008/10/

'RepositoryMan' The Blog of a repository administrator Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://repositoryman.blogspot.com/

'Digital Curation Blog' Blog inspired by the Digital Curation Centre to discuss issues relating to the curation and long term preservation of digital science and research data. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://digitalcuration.blogspot.com/

'[The DCC Blawg' The Legal Blog of the UK's Digital Curation Centre. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://dccblawg.blogspot.com/

'OXDRRC' Oxford University Digital Repositories Research Co-ordinator Blogspot. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://oxdrrc.blogspot.com

'Digital Archive Blog' Florida Digital Archive Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://blogs.fcla.edu/index.php/digitalarchive

'Neil Beagrie's Blog' Retrieved 23 October 2008 from: http://blog.beagrie.com/

'JISC Information Environment Team' Retrieved 23 October 2008 from: http://infteam.jiscinvolve.org/

4. Events

4.1 Recent events

NISO Digital Preservation Forum: Planning Today for Tomorrow's Resources. 14 March 2008. Washington DC, USA.
Presentations available from the NISO website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

DCC/RIN Research Data Management Forum - Inaugural workshop. 19-20 March 2008, Manchester.
Presentations available from the DCC website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/data-forum/?category=3
Update 24 November 2008

Open Repositories Conference 2008: The third international conference on open repositories 1-4 April 2008. Southampton, UK.
Highlights and a write up of the event are available from the conference website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/data-forum/?category=3 Article about the event is also in Ariadne. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue56/or-08-rpt/

What to preserve? Significant properties of Digital Objects. 7 April 2008. British Library, London, UK.
Presentations available from the DPC website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

TAPE Workshop on the curation and preservation of audiovisual collections. UK. 12-16 May 2008.
A succinct write up of the event is available. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.archiefschool.nl/docs/accessverslag.pdf

Sun Preservation and Archive Special Interest Group: May 2008. San Francisco, US
A write up of the event is in Ariadne. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue56/pasig-2008-05-rpt/

LIFE2 Project Conference. 23 June 2008. British Library, London, UK.
Presentations available from the LIFE website. Retrieved 16 September 2008 from: http://www.life.ac.uk/2/conference.shtml

JISC-PoWR workshop, 27 June 2008, London, UK
Presentations are at the JISC-PoWR website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://jiscpowr.jiscinvolve.org/workshops/workshop-1/

Digital Preservation Planning: Principles, Examples and the Future with Planets. 29 July 2008, London. UK
Presentations are to be found on the DPC website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Edinburgh Repository Fringe. 31 July - 1 August 2008. Edinburgh, UK.
Presentations are available from the Fringe website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.repositoryfringe.org/

Archives 2008: Archival R/Evolution & Identities 26-30 August 2008. San Francisco, USA.
Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

International Conference on the Preservation of Digital Objects (ipres2008). 29-30 September 2008. British Library, London, UK.
Retrieved 29 October 2008 http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/programme.html

Embedding Web Preservation Strategies Within Your Institution. JISC-PoWR workshop. 12 September 2008. Manchester UK
Resources now available from the JISC-PoWR blog. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://jiscpowr.jiscinvolve.org/workshops/workshop-3/

12th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2008) 14-19 September 2008. Aarhus, Denmark.
Accepted papers now available from the conference website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.iwaw.net/08/

IWAW 2008: 8th International Web Archiving Workshop
18 - 19 Sep 2008, Aarhus Denmark (Denmark).
Accepted papers now available from the conference website. http://www.iwaw.net/08/ Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

4.2 Current and Forthcoming events


DPE/Planets/CASPAR/nestor Joint Training Event: Starting out: Preserving Digital Objects - Principles and Practice. 13-17 October 2008. Prague, Czech Republic. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.wepreserve.eu/events/prague-2008/

Stewardship of Digital Assets, Washington State Historical Society. 14-15 October 2008. Tacoma, Washington, US. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Web Archiving Training Session. 16-17 October 2008. Paris, France. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Conference on virtual systems and multimedia Dedicated to Digital Heritage. 20-26 October 2008. Limassol, Cyprus. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.vsmm2008.org/

Media in Motion: The Challenge of Preservation in the Digital Age. 29 October 2008. Montreal, Canada. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

DPE/Planets/CASPAR/ Third Annual Conference: Costs, Benefits and Motivations for digital preservation. 28-30 October 2008. Nice, France. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:


DCC/Edinburgh e-Science Collaborative Workshop. 13 November 2008, Sheffield, UK. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/

Globalisation and the Management of Information Resources. 12-14 November 2008, Sofia, Bulgaria. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://slim.emporia.edu/globenet/Sofia2008/index.htm

Alliance for Permanent Access. Keeping the Records of Science Accessible: Can We Afford it? 4 November 2008. Budapest. [Invitation only] Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

'PDF/A in Libraries'. 2 December 2008, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

DCC/RIN Data Managament Forum, 26-27 November 200, Manchester, UK. Retrieved 24 October 2008 from:


4th International Digital Curation Conference. 1-3 December 2008. Edinburgh, Scotland. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/

International Data curation Education Action (IDEA) Working Group Meeting. 4 December 2008. Edinburgh, UK. Invitation only. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/idea-2008-edinburgh/

Persistence of Memory: sustaining digital collections. 9-10 December, Chicago, US. Organised by the Northeast Document Conservation Center Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

DPC/RSP/DCC/JISC Workshop. Tackling the Preservation Challenge: Practical Steps for Repository Managers. 12th December 2008, London, UK. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

DLM Forum Conference 2008: Information and Records Management in Europe: Achievements and new directions. 10 - 12 December 2008. Toulouse, France. Retrieved 23 October 2008 from: http://www.dlm2008.com/index.php?id_lang=2



DigCCurr 2009: Digital Curation Practice, Promise and Prospects. April 1-3 2009. Chapel Hill, USA. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr2009/


African Digital Scholarship and Curation 2009. 12-14 May 2009. Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

'Archiving 2009' IS&T Archiving 4 -7 May 2009, Arlington VA. Retrieved 24 October 2008 from:

4.3 Training Events


DELOS Summer School 2008. 8-14 June 2008. Tirrenia, Italy.Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:

Nestor Summer School 2008. 16-20 June 2008. Breisgau, Germany. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://nestor.sub.uni-goettingen.de/summer_school_2008/

Web Archiving Training Session, 16-17 October 2008, Paris. France. More information is available from the European Archive Wiki. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:
Update 24 November 2008

Digital Preservation Training Programme. 20-22 October 2008, London, UK. A shorter course than usual is being held. Register via the ULCC website. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.ulcc.ac.uk/dptp/

Digital Preservation Management: Short-Term Solutions for Long-Term Problems Inter- University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), October 19-24, 2008. Ann Arbor, MI, US. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from:


International Data Curation Education Action (IDEA) Working Group Meeting. 4 December 2008. Edinburgh. Invitation Only. Retrieved 19 October 2008 from: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/events/idea-2008-edinburgh/

Last updated: 19 October 2009

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